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The Thran J Robert King Pdf To Excel

The Thran J Robert King Pdf To Excellent

Correlations between number of thoracolumbar vertebrae, sternebrae and rib-bearing vertebrae. Clade Taxon Ribs-sacrum Sternebrae-sacrum n r P n r P • ‘Ribs-sacrum’ indicates relation between number of thoracic vertebrae and location of sacrum. ‘Sternebrae-sacrum’ indicates relation between number of sternebrae and location of sacrum. ‘ n’ = sample size; ‘ r’ = Pearson correlation coefficient; ‘nsv’ = not sufficient variation to calculate r; P = two-tailed significance level (values at or below 0.05 are shown in bold).

Dashes indicate insufficient sample to carry out comparison. Rhabdomys shows an r of 1 because of a single individual with fewer thoracic and thoracolumbar counts, interrupting an otherwise invariant sample. Superscripts indicate data taken from 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6.

For Bradypus tridactylus, our sample was supplemented by data from. Data for other taxa were collected during the course of this study and that of; all data are shown in Appendix S1 in electronic spreadsheet format. Asterisks denote use of presacral count, rather than thoracolumbar count, to infer sacral position in sloths (as discussed in ). Summary statistics for vertebral counts across clades of mammals. Nomenclature follows.

Data for constituent individual species are given in the Appendix S2. ‘TL CV*’ refers to the corrected thoracolumbar coefficient of variation, or coefficients of variation (CV) = stdev(100)/average, using the correction for small sample size [CV(1 + (1/4n))] as described in. TL CV*% homeotic% meristic% normal% anomalies n individ n species Notes • A: data on anomalies in Primates available only for Eulemur and Lepilemur ( n = 28). Download Magic Video Converter Serial Key here. • B: data on anomalies in Carnivora+Euungulata available only for Vulpes ( n = 24). • C: data on anomalies in Rodentia available for all ( n = 125) except Onychomys and Mus. • D: data on anomalies in Lagomorpha available for Lepus ( n = 10), not Oryctolagus.

J Robert (AUTHOR) Jun-02-2009 [ Paperback ] by J Robert King #PDF#Download. Excel Applications for Accounting Principles. { THE THRAN/THE.

• E: data on anomalies in Afrotheria available for all ( n = 209) except Eremitalpa and radiographs of Amblysomus. • F: data on anomalies in Xenarthra available only for subset of Bradypus tridactylus ( n = 21) and Dasypus novemcinctus ( n = 46). • G: data on anomalies in Lipotyphlan available for all ( n = 131) except Sorex.

• • Phylogenetic tree of mammals derived from and. Lettered nodes A–F represent monotremes (A), marsupials (B), xenarthrans (C), afrotherians (D), laurasiatheres (E) and euarchontoglires (F). Pie-charts represent proportion of individuals in sample (given in parentheses adjacent to taxon names) with median thoracolumbar count (black), meristic deviations (grey) and homeotic deviations (white). The graph represents thoracolumbar coefficient of variation (CV, black diamonds, top scale) and percentage of specimens with vertebral anomalies (grey squares, bottom scale), also summarized in. Note that sample sizes for per cent anomalies are in some cases less than those for CV and proportion median thoracolumbar count (see ).

Asterisks represent species for which data have been added from the literature. Averaging across high-level clades, the interpretation of that southern placental mammals (Atlantogenata) show more vertebral variation than other high-level groups is partly true, but underestimates the variability exhibited in clades such as primates (; see ). Although the vertebrally most variable species ( Dasypus, Procavia) are atlantogenatan, thoracolumbar CVs of the remaining afrotheres and xenarthrans fall within the range of those reported for primates and monotremes (). The average thoracolumbar CV for laurasiatheres is low because of the almost nonexistent variation in Sorex, Talpa and Vulpes. Data on frequency of vertebral anomalies (e.g.

Nonthoracic or asymmetric ribs, transitional features at vertebral series boundaries) were available only for species we sampled from museum collections, either by direct observation or X-ray CT imaging. Although the species with the highest thoracolumbar CVs in our sample ( Dasypus and Procavia) are not among the species with the highest frequency of anomalies, overall, the rate of vertebral anomalies is positively correlated with the thoracolumbar CV ( r = 0.451, n = 28, P 0.05). Although not undertaken in this study, further scrutiny of sacral and caudal variation would be valuable to distinguish between globally meristic changes and homeotic changes between the lumbar and sacral series. All but four of the 30 sampled laurasiatheres, euarchontoglires, monotremes and marsupials exhibit median vertebral counts in well over 50% of the sampled individuals for each species (; ). Domestic Sus scrofa, the short-nosed echidna ( Tachyglossus), plus Pan and Gorilla are the only exceptions, with 44%, 50%, 50% and 52% (respectively) of individuals showing median counts. In contrast, of the 12 afrotherians and xenarthrans we sampled, only three ( Amblysomus, Eremitalpa and Macroscelides) substantially exceed 50% of individuals with median thoracolumbar counts; the armadillo ( Dasypus) is close at 54%. Monotremes, marsupials and boreoeutherians show an average of 69, 81 and 78% of individuals with median vertebral counts, whereas xenarthrans and afrotherians average 44% and 46%, respectively.